Ankle Ligaments

Name & Function  Origin & Insertion
Tibionavicular ligament: stabilizes the medial aspect of the ankle joint Medial malleolus of tibia & navicular tuberosity
Tibiocalcaneal ligament: stabilizes the medial aspect of the ankle joint Medial malleolus of tibia & sustentaculum tali
Posterior tibiotalar: stabilizes the medial aspect of the ankle joint Medial malleolus of tibia & medial tubercle of talus
Anterior tibiotalar: stabilize the medial aspect of the ankle joint Medial malleolus of tibia & medial aspect of talus
Anterior talofibular ligament: stabilizes the lateral aspect of the ankle joint Lateral malleolus of fibula & anterior aspect of talus
Posterior talofibular ligament: stabilizes the lateral aspect of the ankle joint Lateral malleolus of fibula & lateral tubercle of posterior process of talus
Calcaneofibular ligament: stabilizes the lateral aspect of the ankle joint Lateral malleolus of fibula & lateral surface of calcaneum

Limited Dorsiflexion and Knee Injuries

If you were to walk on your tippy-toes, your ankle joint (talocrural region) would be in what is called plantarflexion. Alternatively, if you were to walk on your heels, your ankle joint would be in what is called dorsiflexion. Limited range of motion in ankle dorsiflexion is an important component in altered knee biomechanics. So, if you are dealing with knee pain, the source the pain may not be in the knee itself, but instead the ankle. The ideal range of ankle dorsiflexion is 0-20 degrees. Limitions in this range of motion can alter neutral knee alignment (often valgus) and increase risk factors of ligament and cartilage tears (ACL, MCL, Meniscus), patellofemoral pain, and knee osteoarthritis. So, if you identify limitations in the ankle and are currently dealing with knee pain, increasing ankle range of motion may be an important contribution in reducing the risk of knee injury.

Pronation and Supination in Gait

During the normal walking cycle (gait), the feet naturally supinate and pronate. People with low arches may excessively pronate and experience plantar fasciitis, tendinitis, and pain in the arches. Excessively supinated feet are more likely among people with high arches and often lead to joint problems and tendinitis at the forefoot and big toe.